Criminology : Syllabus (Sem IV, Mumbai University)

1. Dimensions of Crime in India

    • Nature and orient of crime in India
    • General approaches to come control
    • Crimes of the powerful
    • Organised of the smuggling traffic in narcotics
    • White collar crime : corruption in public life
    • Socio-Economic crime adulteration of foods and drugs: fraudulent trade practice
    • Crimes in the profession – medical, legal, engineering.
    • Commonality by agencies of the state
    • Perpetrators o ordinary crime
    • The situations criminal
    • The chronic Tender
    • Criminality or women
    • Young offenders
    • Criminal gangs
    • Cyber Crimes

2. Causes of Criminal Behaviour

    • Nature of the problem : some unscientific theories
    • The constitutional School of Criminology-Lomborso and others (heredity and
      mental retardation as causes of crime)
    • Sociological theories Anomies
    • Modern sociological theories – Sutherland’s differential association theory.
    • Reckless social vulnerable theory
    • Economic theories and their relevance
    • Environment home and community influences, urban and rural crimes.
    • The ghetto, broken homes, the effect of motion picture T.V. and video, press narcotics and alcohol.
    • Caste and community tensions caste wars and communal riots – their causes demoralising effects, atrocities against scheduled cadres.
    • Emotional disturbance and other psychological factors
    • Multiple causation approach to crime

3. Police and the Criminal Justice

    • The police system
    • Structural organization of police at the centre and the states
    • Mode of recruitment and training
    • Powers and duties of police under the police acts, Criminal Procedure Code and other laws.
    • Arrest, search and seizure and constructional imperatives
    • Methods of police investigation
    • Third degree methods
    • Corruption in police
    • Relationship between police and prosecution
    • Liability of police for custodial violence
    • Police public relations
    • Select aspects of National Police Commission report

4. Punishment of Offenders

    • Some discarded modes of punishment
    • Corporal punishment : whipping and flogging : mutilation and
    • Transportation
    • Public execution
    • Punishments under the Indian criminal law
    • Capital Punishment
    • Imprisonment
    • Fine
    • Cancellation or withdrawal of licences
    • The prison system
    • Administrative organization of prisons
    • Mode of recruitment and training
    • The Jail Manual
    • Powers of prison officials
    • Prisoners classification – male, female : juvenile and adult : under trial and convicted prisoners
    • Constitutional imperatives and prison reforms
    • Prison management: prisoner’s right and security compulsions.
    • Open prisons
    • Prison labour
    • Violation of prison code and its consequences.
    • Appraisal of imprisonment as a mode of punishment

5. Victimology

    • Demographic characteristics of the victims
    • Compensation to the victims
    • Rehabilitation

6. Treatment or Correction of Offenders

    • The need for reformation and rehabilitation of offenders undergoing punishment/imprisonment.
    • Classification of offenders through modern diagnostic techniques
    • The role of psychoanalysts and social workers in the prison
    • Vocational and religious education and apprenticeship programmes for the offenders.
    • Group counselling and re-socialisation programmes
    • Prisoners’ organizations for self-government.
    • Participation of inmates in community services
    • An appraisal of reformative techniques
    • Efficacy of imprisonment as a measure to combat criminality and the search for substitutes.

7. Re-socialisation processes

    • Parole
    • Nature of parole
    • Authority for granting parole
    • Supervision of parolees
    • Parole and conditional release
    • Release of the offender
    • Problems of the released offender
    • Attitudes of the community towards released offender
    • Prisoner and societies and other voluntary organizations
    • Governmental action
    • An appraisal



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