The blog presents the short Questions and Answers of the Chapter 4, Environmental Management, from Science Part II of Class 10 from Maharashtra State Board. These can be very useful for students preparing for SSC Board exams as well as competitive exams, as it includes the objective type basic concepts & fundamentals.
1. How is a ecosystem formed ?
Ans. Ecosystem is formed by biotic and abiotic factors and their interactions with each other.
2. Define an environment ?
Ans. Physical, chemical and biological factors affecting the living organisms in any possible way is collectively called as environment. In short an environment is the condition in the surrounding.
3. What are the main types of environment ?
Ans. There are two main types of environment.
• Natural environment
• Artificial environment
4. What are the two basic factors of environment ?
Ans. Environment consists of two basic factors :
• Biotic factors
• Abiotic factors
5. Define ecology ?
Ans. The science that deals with the study of interactions between biotic and abiotic factors of the environment is called as ecology.
6. What constitutes an ecosystem ?
Ans. The biotic and abiotic factors occupying a definite geographical area and their interactions collectively constitute the ecosystem.
7. How is environmental balance maintained ?
Ans. Environmental balance is maintained through continuous operation of various natural cycles :
• water cycle,
• carbon cycle,
• gaseous cycles like nitrogen cycle, oxygen cycle, etc.
• various food chains of ecosystem
8. Why it is basic responsibility of human being to preserve the nature without disturbing its balance ?
Ans. Human existence is totally impossible without the existence of nature, hence it is basic responsibility of human being to preserve the nature without disturbing its balance.
9. Define environmental pollution ?
Ans. 1. Unnecessary and unacceptable change in the surrounding environment due to natural events or human activities is called as environmental pollution. 2. Direct or indirect changes in physical, chemical and biological properties of air, water and soil which will be harmful to human and other living beings is environmental pollution.
10. What are the reasons of pollution ?
Ans. The various reasons of pollution are :
• population explosion
• fast industrialization
• indiscriminate use of natural resources
• unplanned urbanization
11. What are the two reasons of radioactive pollution ?
Ans. Radioactive pollution can occur due to two reasons :
• Natural radiation : UV and IR radiations
• Artificial radiation : X-rays and radiations from atomic energy plants.
12. What are the harmful effects of radiations ?
Ans. Some of the effects of radiations are as follows :
• Cancerous ulceration occurs due to higher radiations of X-rays
• Tissues in the body are destroyed
• Genetic changes occur
• Vision is adversely affected
13. How environment protection-conservation can be achieved ?
Ans. The measures to be followed to achieve environment protection-conservation are :
(a) There should be large scale participation of the people in environment conservation.
(b) It will be possible to answer the environmental problems only if environmental protection-conservation becomes an effective public movement.
(c) Values like positive attitude and affection towards environment, knowledge about it, etc. should be inculcated among the children since their childhood.
(d) The people have to be made aware through education.
14. What is UNEP ?
Ans. In 1972, United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has been established in a conference arranged on human and environment in which environmental problems were discussed.
15. What are the laws enacted about environment conservation ?
Ans. Laws enacted about environmental conservation:
• Forest Conservation Act, 1980
• Environmental Conservation Act, 1986.
16. What are the objectives of Forest Conservation Act, 1980 ?
Ans. The objectives of Forest Conservation Act, 1980 are :
• The land reserved for forest conservation has been prohibited to use for any other purpose by this law. Example : Permission of central government is compulsory for mining activities.
• Any person who disobeys this law is entitled to imprisonment for 15 days.
17. What are the objectives of Environmental Conservation Act, 1986 ?
Ans. The objectives of Environmental Conservation Act, 1986 are :
• To control the pollution and punish the persons or institutes harming the environment. • Any person or factory is prohibited by this act from releasing the pollutants in atmosphere beyond a permissible limit.
• The person breaching this rule is entitled for either five year imprisonment or fine up to Rs. 1 lakh.
18. What is the objective of National Green Tribunal, 2010 ?
Ans. National Green Tribunal has been established in 2010 for effective implementation of environment related laws.