2. Land, Soil and Wildlife Resources | Part 1 | Geography | NCERT | Class 8

The blog presents the important summary notes from the Chapter 2, Geography , NCERT of Class 8. This can be used for school studies as well as for Competitive entrance exams and Olympiads.

1. Ninety percent of the world population occupies only thirty percent of land area. The remaining seventy per cent of the land is either sparsely populated or uninhabited.

2. Land is among the most important natural resources.

3. Land covers only about 30 % of the total area of the earth’s surface and all parts of this small percentage are not habitable.

4. The uneven distribution of population in different parts of the world is mainly due to varied characteristics of land and climate.

5. Plains and river valleys offer suitable land for agriculture. Hence, these are the densely populated areas of the world.

6. Land use : Land is used for different purposes such as agriculture, mining, building houses, roads and setting up of industries. This is commonly termed as Land use.

7. The use of land is determined by physical factors such as topography, soil, climate, minerals and availability of water.

8. Human factors such as population and technology are also important determinants of land use pattern.

9. Land can be classified on the basis of ownership as
Private land : owned by individuals
Community land : owned by the community for common uses, also called as common property resources

10. Major threats to the environment : Land degradation, landslides, soil erosion, desertification.

11. Growing population and their ever growing demand has led to a large scale destruction of forest cover and arable land.

12. Afforestation, land reclamation, regulated use of chemical pesticide and fertilisers and checks on overgrazing are some of the common methods used to conserve land resources.

13. Soil : The thin layer of grainy substance covering the surface of the earth is called soil.

14. Landforms determine the type of soil. Soil is made up of organic matter, minerals and weathered rocks found on the earth.

15. The right mix of minerals and organic matter make the soil fertile.

16. Weathering : It is the breaking up and decay of exposed rocks, by temperature changes, frost action, plants, animals and human activity.

17. Landslides are simply defined as the mass movement of rock, debris or earth down a slope. They often take place in conjunction with earthquakes, floods and volcanoes.

18. Some broad mitigation techniques of landslide :
• Hazard mapping to locate areas prone to landslides. Hence, such
areas can be avoided for building settlements.
• Construction of retention wall to stop land from slipping.
• Increase in the vegetation cover to arrest landslide.
• The surface drainage control works to control the movement of
landslide along with rain water and spring flows.

19. It takes hundreds of years to make just one centimetre of soil.

20. Factors of Soil Formation :
• the nature of the parent rock
• climatic factors
• other factors are the topography, role of organic material and time
taken for the composition of soil formation.

21. In India soils could be alluvial, black, red, laterite, desertic and mountain soil.

22. Soil erosion and depletion are the major threats to soil as a resource.

23. Factors which lead to soil degradation are :
• deforestation
• overgrazing
• overuse of chemical feritilisers/pesticides
• rain wash
• landslides • floods

24. Methods of soil conservation :

Mulching: The bare ground between plants is covered with a layer of organic matter like straw. It helps to retain soil moisture.
Contour barriers: Stones, grass, soil are used to build barriers along contours. Trenches are made in front of the barriers to
collect water.
Rock dam: Rocks are piled up to slow down the flow of water. This prevents gullies and further soil loss.
Terrace farming: Broad flat steps or terraces are made on the steep slopes so that flat surfaces are available to grow crops. They reduce surface run-off and soil erosion.
Intercropping: Different crops are grown in alternate rows and are sown at different times to protect the soil from rain wash.
Contour ploughing: Ploughing parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a natural barrier for water to flow down the slope.
Shelter belts: In the coastal and dry regions, rows of trees are planted to check the wind movement to protect soil cover.

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Read Part 2: Here

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