4- Agriculture | Geography | Part 1 | NCERT | Class 8

Hello students, in this blog you can find important summary notes from the Chapter 4, Geography, NCERT Book of Class 8. These notes can be used for preparation of various school Competitive Exams, Olympiads and also developing strong Fundamentals.

1. The transformation from a plant to a finished product involves three types of economic activities :

Primary activities : connected with extraction and production of natural resources
Examples: agriculture, fishing and gathering

Secondary activities : concerned with the processing of these resources.
Examples: manufacturing of steel, baking of bread and weaving of cloth

Tertiary activities : these provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through services.
Examples: transport, trade, banking, insurance and advertising

2. Agriculture is a primary activity. It includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock.

3. In the world, 50 % of persons are engaged in agricultural activity.

4. 2/3rd of India’s population is still dependent on agriculture.

5. Favourable topography of soil and climate are vital for agricultural activity.

6. The land on which the crops are grown is known as arable land

7. Agriculture : The science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock, also called farming.

8. Sericulture : Commercial rearing of silk worms. It may supplement the income of the farmer.

9. Pisciculture : Breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds.

10 Viticulture : Cultivation of grapes.

11. Horticulture : Growing vegetables, flowers and fruits for commercial use.

12. Farm System :
– The important inputs are seeds, fertilisers, machinery and labour.
Operations involved are ploughing, sowing, irrigation, weeding and harvesting.
– The outputs from the system include crops, wool, dairy and poultry products.

13. Types Of Farming : Farming is classified into two main types:

Subsistence Farming :
Practised to meet the needs of the farmer’s family
∗ Involves low levels of technology and household labour are used to produce on small output
∗ Further classified into :
· intensive subsistence
· primitive subsistence

Commercial farming
∗ Crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in market.
∗ Area cultivated and the amount of capital used is large
and most of the work is done by machines.
∗ It includes :
· Commercial grain farming
· Mixed farming
· Plantation

Commercial grain farming :
∗ Crops are grown for commercial purpose.
∗ Wheat and maize are common commercially grown grains.
∗ Major areas: temperate grasslands of North America, Europe and Asia.
∗ These areas are sparsely populated with large farms spreading over hundreds of hectares.
∗ Severe winters restrict the growing season and only a single crop can be grown.
– Mixed farming :
∗ Land is used for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock.
∗ Practised in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

Plantations :
∗ It is a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton are grown.
Large amount of labour and capital are required.
∗ The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories.
∗ The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming.
∗ Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world.
Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.

14. Intensive subsistence agriculture:
– The farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour.
– Climate with large number of days with sunshine and fertile soils permit growing of more than one crop annually on the same plot.
Rice is the main crop, other crops include wheat, maize, pulses and oilseeds.
– It is prevalent in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions of south, southeast and east Asia.

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To Read Part 2 : Click Here

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