The blog presents the important summary notes from the Chapter 3, Mineral and Power Resources, Geography , NCERT of Class 8. This can be used for school studies as well as for Competitive entrance exams and Olympiads.
• China and India have large iron ore deposits.
• Asia continent produces more than half of the world’s tin.
• China, Malaysia and Indonesia are among the world’s leading tin producers.
• China also leads in production of lead, antimony and tungsten.
• Asia also has deposits of manganese, bauxite, nickel, zinc and copper.
• Europe is the leading producer of iron-ore in the world.
• The countries with large deposits of iron ore are Russia, Ukraine, Sweden and France.
• Minerals deposits of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel are found in eastern Europe and European Russia.
21. North America
• The mineral deposits in North America are located in three zones:
– the Canadian region north of the Great Lakes: iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper mines
– the Appalachian region: coal mines
– the mountain ranges of the west : copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver
22. Switzerland has no known mineral deposit in it.
23. South America
• Brazil is the largest producer of high grade iron-ore in the world.
• Chile and Peru are leading producers of copper.
• Brazil and Bolivia are among the world’s largest producers of tin.
• South America also has large deposits of gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese, bauxite, mica, platinum, asbestos and diamond.
• Mineral oil is found in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Columbia.
• Africa is rich in mineral resources.
• It is the world’s largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum.
• South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire produce a large portion of the world’s gold.
• The other minerals found in Africa are copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt and bauxite.
• Oil is found in Nigeria, Libya and Angola.
• Australia is the largest producer of bauxite in the world.
• It is a leading producer of gold, diamond, iron ore, tin and nickel.
• It is also rich in copper, lead, zinc and manganese.
• Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie areas of western Australia have the largest deposits of gold.
• The geology of Antarctica is sufficiently well known to predict the existence of a variety of mineral deposits, some probably large.
• Significant size of deposits of coal in the Transantarctic Mountains and iron near the Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica is forecasted.
• Iron ore, gold, silver and oil are also present in commercial quantities.
27. Uses of Minerals
• Minerals are used in many industries.
• Minerals which are used for gems are usually hard. These are then set in various styles for jewellery.
• Copper is another metal used in everything from coins to pipes.
• Silicon, used in the computer industry is obtained from quartz.
• Aluminum obtained from its ore bauxite is used in automobiles and airplanes, bottling industry, buildings and even in kitchen
28. Conservation of Minerals
• Since Minerals are a non-renewable resource, it is necessary to reduce wastage in the process of mining.
• Recycling of metals is another way in which the mineral resources can be conserved.
29. Power resources may be broadly categorised as :
• conventional resources : have been in common use for a long time. examples: firewood and fossil
• non-conventional resources :
30. Fossil fuel : Fuel such as coal, petroleum and natural gas are the main sources of conventional energy.
31. Coal is the most abundantly found fossil fuel.
• Coal is used as a domestic fuel, in industries such as iron and steel, steam engines and to generate electricity.
• Thermal power: Electricity produced from coal is called thermal power.
• Buried Sunshine: The coal which we are using today was formed millions of years ago when giant ferns and swamps got buried under the layers of earth. Coal is therefore referred to as Buried Sunshine.
• The leading coal producers of the world are China, USA, Germany, Russia, South Africa and France.
• The coal producing areas of India are Raniganj, Jharia, Dhanbad and Bokaro in Jharkhand.
32. Petroleum means rock oil. Petroleum and its derivatives are called Black Gold as they are very valuable.
• The chief petroleum producing countries are Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Qatar.
• The other major producers are USA, Russia, Venezuela, and Algeria.
• The leading producers in India are Digboi in Assam, Bombay High in Mumbai and the deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers.
33. Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a popular eco-friendly automobile fuel as it causes less pollution than petroleum and diesel.
34. Natural Gas : It is found with petroleum deposits and is released when crude oil is brought to the surface.
• It can be used as a domestic and industrial fuel.
• Russia, Norway, UK and the Netherlands are the major producers of natural gas.
• In India Jaisalmer, Krishna Godavari delta, Tripura and some areas off shore in Mumbai have natural gas resources.
• Very few countries in the world have sufficient natural gas reserves of their own.
35. Hydel Power
• Hydro electricity : Rain water or river water stored in dams is made to fall from heights that flows through pipes inside the dam over turbine blades placed at the bottom of the dam. These moving blades then turn the generator to produce electricity.
• One fourth of the world’s electricity is produced by hydel power.
• The leading producers of hydel power in the world are Paraguay, Norway, Brazil, and China.
• Some important hydel power stations in India are Bhakra Nangal, Gandhi Sagar, Nagarjunsagar and Damodar valley projects.
36. Non-conventional Sources of Energy :
• The increased use of fossil fuel is fast leading to its shortage & environmental pollution. Therefore, there is need for using non-conventional sources such as solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy which are renewable.
• Solar energy :
– Solar energy trapped from the sun can be used in solar cells to produce electricity. Many of these cells are joined into solar
panels to generate power for heating and lighting purpose.
– The technology of utilising solar energy benefits a lot of tropical countries that are blessed with abundant sun shine.
– Solar energy is also used in solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers besides being used for community lighting and traffic signals.
• The site of the world’s first solar and wind powered bus shelter is in Scotland.
• Norway was the first country in the world to develop hydroelectricity.
• Wind Energy :
– Wind is an inexhaustible source of energy.
– In modern time wind mills, the high speed winds rotate the wind mill which is connected to a generator to produce electricity.
– Wind farms having clusters of such wind mills are located in coastal regions and in mountain passes where strong and steady winds blow.
– Windfarms are found in Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain are noted for their wind energy production.
• Nuclear Power :
– Nuclear power is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radio active elements like
uranium and thorium.
– These fuels undergo nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and emit power.
– The greatest producers of nuclear power are USA and Europe.
– In India Rajasthan and Jharkhand have large deposits of Uranium.
– Thorium is found in large quantities in the Monozite sands of Kerala.
– The nuclear power stations in India are located at :
∗ Kalpakkam in Tamilnadu
∗ Tarapur in Maharastra
∗ Ranapratap Sagar near Kota in Rajasthan
∗ Narora in Uttar Pradesh
∗ Kaiga in Karnataka.
• Geothermal Energy :
– Heat energy obtained from the earth is called geothermal energy.
– The temperature in the interior of the earth rises steadily as we go deeper. Some times this heat energy may surface itself
in the form of hot springs. This heat energy can be used to generate power.
– Geothermal energy in the form of hot springs has been used for cooking, heating and bathing for several years.
– USA has the world’s largest geothermal power plants followed by New Zealand, Iceland, Philippines and Central America.
– In India, geothermal plants are located in Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and Puga Valley in Ladakh.
• Tidal Energy :
– Energy generated from tides is called tidal energy.
– Tidal energy can be harnessed by building dams at narrow openings of the sea.
– During high tide the energy of the tides is used to turn the turbine installed in the dam to produce electricity.
– Russia, France and the Gulf of Kachchh in India have huge tidal mill farms.
• The first tidal energy station was built in France.
• Biogas :
– Organic waste such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste can be converted into a gaseous fuel called biogas.
– The organic waste is decomposed by bacteria in biogas digesters to emit biogas which is essentially a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide.
– Biogas is an excellent fuel for cooking and lighting and produces huge amount of organic manure each year.