10. The Expansion of the Maratha Power | History | Class 7

The blog discusses the Questions and Answers from chapter 10, The Expansion of the Maratha Power from History & Civics of class 7. Students can use these answers for reference in their studies.

Q1. Write the meaning.

1. Chauthai : Chauthai is the right to collect one fourth part of the revenue from the
other rulers.

2. Sardeshmukhi : Sardeshmukhi is the right to collect one tenth part of the revenue from
the other rulers.

Q2. Write the answer in one word.

1. Balaji was from this town in Konkan Shrivardhan.

2. He ruled Bundelkhand Raja Chhatrasal .

3. Bajirao died at this place Raverkhed .

4. He defeated the Portuguese Chimajiappa.

Q3. Write about them in your own words.

1. Kanhoji Angre :

(a) Kanhoji Angre was the chief of Maratha Navy.
(b) He chose to side with Maharani Tarabai and attacked the territories of Shahu Maharaj.
(c) This gave rise to a difficult situation. Under these circumstances, Shahu Maharaj sent Balaji to fight against Kanhoji Angre.
(d) Balaji avoided the war and won Kanhoji over to Shahu Maharaj’s side.

2. The Battle of Palkhed

(a) The Mughal emperor Farukhsear appointed Nizam ul Mulk the Subhedar of Deccan.
(b) In 1713 ce Nizam tried to establish his separate existence at Hyderabad.
(c) The Emperor had given the Marathas the rights to recover ChauthaiSardeshmukhi from the Mughal areas.
(d) Nizam was against it. He captured some part of the Pune Pargana.
(e) Bajirao decided to checkmate the Nizam. He defeated the Nizam at Palkhed near Aurangabad.
(f) After defeat the Nizam accepted the Maratha right to collect Chauthai Sardeshmukhi.

3. Balaji Vishwanath :

(a) After Shahu Maharaj was released by the Mughals, he made Balaji Vishwanath, a Peshwa.
(b) Balaji hailed from Shrivardhan, in Konkan. He was competent and experienced.
(c) He convinced many Sardars that Shahu Maharaj was the real heir of the Maratha empire and made them join hands with him.
(d) He wisely won over Kanhoji Angre, the chief of Maratha Navy and got him on Shahu Maharaj’s side avoiding a war.
(e) He was instrumental in strengthening the position of Shahu Maharaj in Maharashtra and in the North.
(f) With the help of the the Sayyid brothers, Abdulla (Hasan) and Hussein Ali, Balaji Vishwanath obtained the grants or sanads to collect chauthai and sardeshmukhi from the Mughal territory in the Deccan.

4. Bajirao I :

(a) After the death of Balaji Vishwanath, Shahu Maharaj appointed Balajis son, Bajirao I the Peshwa in 1720 ce.
(b) He expanded the Maratha Empire during his term of 20 years.
(c) Bajirao defeated Nizam-ul-Mulk the Subhedar of Deccan in the battle of Palkhed and restored the right of Marathas to to recover Chauthai-Sardeshmukhi from the Mughal areas.
(d) As the Mughal power had become weak, Bajirao knew that there was more scope to expand the Maratha empire towards northern
side.
(e) Bajirao sent Malharrao Holkar, Ranoji Shinde and Udaji Pawar under the leadership of his brother Chimajiappa to Malwa.
(f) He defeated Subhedar Mohmmad Khan Bangush of Allahabad and restored the kingdom of Bundelkhand to Chhatrasal.
(g) Bajirao defeated Nizam in the battle of Bhopal and made him agree to secure the sanad of Malwa subhedari for the Marathas from
Mughal Emperor.
(h) Bajirao breathed his last in April 1740, at Raverkhedi on the banks of the Narmada.
(i) Bajirao was a great General and with his valour, he established the Maratha supremacy in the North.
(j) He won status for the Maratha power as a formidable power in the whole of India.

Q4. Give reasons.

1. Two separate Maratha States were formed.

Ans. The two Maratha States were formed because :
(a) When Azamshah released Chattrapati Shahu Maharaj from his custody Tarabai refused to accept his claim to the throne.
(b) Chattrapati Shahu Maharaj therefore fought and defeated Maharani Tarabai in the battle of Khed. He captured Satara and crowned himself as Chhatrapati.
(c) Maharani Tarabai thereby proclaimed her minor son Shivaji II as the Chhatrapati at Pahnala.

2. Azamshah released Chattrapati Shahu Maharaj from his custody.

Ans. Azamshah released Chattrapati Shahu Maharaj from his custody, because :
(a) Azamshah believed that if Shahu Maharaj was released, there would arise a conflict between him and Maharani Tarabai for the gadi of the Maratha Chhatrapati.
(b) He felt that this would sap the Maratha strength.

3. Delhi needed the help from the Marathas.

Ans. Delhi needed the help from the Marathas, because :
(a) The Mughal power faced the threat of the Irani and Afghani invaders from the north-west and also of the local Pathan, local Ra-
jput, Jat and Rohilas rulers.
(b) The internal competition and tussle in the court had also weakened the Mughal power.

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